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Anal sphincter area

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Pron Videos Anal sphincter area.

Endoanal ultrasound is now regarded as the gold standard for evaluating anal sphincter pathology in the investigation of anal incontinence.

The advent of three-dimensional ultrasound has further improved our understanding of the two-dimensional technique. Endoanal ultrasound requires specialised equipment and its relative invasiveness has prompted clinicians to explore alternative imaging techniques.

Transvaginal and transperineal ultrasound have been recently evaluated as alternative imaging modalities. However, the need for technique standardisation, validation and reporting is of paramount importance. We conducted a MEDLINE search to February and critically reviewed studies using the three imaging techniques in evaluating anal sphincter integrity.

Over the last three decades the anal sphincter complex has been the subject of increasing interest involving a variety of disciplines including obstetricians, colorectal surgeons, gastroenterologists, physiotherapists, paediatric surgeons, anatomists, Anal sphincter area and midwives. Obstetric trauma is the major cause of faecal incontinence. However, the precise mechanism of maintaining continence is complex, and our understanding of the major mechanism underlying the development of anal incontinence has evolved from that of progressive pudendal neuropathy [ 12 ] to that of unrecognised mechanical anal sphincter trauma at Anal sphincter area time of vaginal delivery [ 3 - 5 ].

Although cadaveric dissections [ 6 ], physiological testing [ 7 ], ultrasound images [ 8 ] and MRI [ 9 ] have enabled progressive improvement in understanding the anatomy, function and pathophysiology of the anal sphincter, much remains to be understood.


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