This article reviews what is currently known about how men and women respond to the presentation of visual sexual stimuli.
Sexy video male and female While the assumption that men respond more to visual Sexy video male and female stimuli is generally empirically supported, previous reports of sex differences are confounded by the variable content of the stimuli presented and measurement techniques. We propose that the cognitive processing stage of responding to sexual stimuli is the first stage in which sex differences occur.
The divergence between men and women is proposed to occur at this time, reflected in differences in neural activation, and contribute to previously reported sex differences in downstream peripheral physiological responses and subjective reports of sexual arousal.
Additionally, this review discusses factors that may contribute to the variability in sex differences observed in response to visual sexual stimuli. Factors include participant variables, such as hormonal state and socialized sexual attitudes, as well as variables specific to the content presented in the stimuli. Based on the literature reviewed, we conclude that content characteristics may differentially produce higher levels of sexual arousal in men and women.
Sexual motivation, perceived gender role expectations, and sexual attitudes are possible influences. These differences are of practical importance to future research on sexual arousal that aims to use experimental stimuli comparably appealing to men and women and also for general understanding of cognitive sex differences.
Sex differences in response to visual sexual stimuli are widely acknowledged, although poorly documented. A common presumption in society and the media is that men respond more strongly to visual sexual stimuli than do women.
Pornographic magazines and videos directed at men are a multi-billion dollar industry while similar products directed towards women are difficult to find.
The extent of sex differences and the exact mechanisms producing them are unclear. This review discusses what is known about human sex differences in response to visual sexual stimuli and possible influences contributing to this sex difference. To understand fully sex differences in response to visual sexual stimuli, it is first necessary to present the theoretical construct describing the multiple processes we believe to be involved in producing a response to sexual stimuli.
The cognitive contributions to sexual arousal are not completely known, but involve the appraisal and evaluation of the stimulus, categorization of the stimulus as sexual, and affective response Basson, ; Janssen Sexy video male and female al. The physiological component of sexual arousal includes changes in cardiovascular function, respiration, and genital response, erection in men, and vasocongestion in women Basson, ; Janssen et al. The inconsistency between physiological measures and reports of subjective sexual arousal may suggest that physiological changes on their own are not the only events subjects use to assess sexual stimuli.
Additionally, it is unclear whether Sexy video male and female discordance is primarily limited to women, as men typically show a greater, although not complete, concordance between their genital responses and subjective assessments of arousal Chivers et al.
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Thus, we do not yet know the exact relationship between subjective and physical sexual arousal, which is a complex process emerging from multiple cognitive and physiological components. It is possible that these cognitive and physiological components operate through distinct mechanisms and circuitry, although they likely mutually affect each other Janssen et al.
Our theoretical orientation supposes that the conscious and unconscious cognitive processing in the brain, including memory, attention, and emotion, set the internal context for which visual stimuli, as well as the subsequent peripheral physiological responses, Sexy video male and female interpreted as sexual.
The cognitive framework in which visual sexual stimuli are viewed thus mediates the specific response elicited to visual sexual stimuli. In a feedback process, subjective sexual arousal results from an interaction between cognitive and experiential factors, such as affective state, previous experience, and current social context, which set the conditions for the production of peripheral physiological reactions, which then feedback to affect cognitive reactions to the stimuli, resulting in feelings of sexual arousal, which in turn affect the extent of physiological Sexy video male and female.