Zinc is an essential mineral involved in regulating many enzymes. It is an antioxidant and immune-boosting supplement. Zinc is most commonly supplemented to reduce the frequency of illness and to support optimal levels of testosterone.
Our evidence-based analysis features unique references to scientific papers. Each member of our research team is required to have no conflicts of interest, including with supplement manufacturers, food companies, and industry funders.
The team includes nutrition researchers, registered dietitians, physicians, and pharmacists. We have a strict editorial process. This page features references. All factual claims are followed by specifically-applicable references. Click here to see the full set of references for this page. Zinc is one of the 24 micronutrients needed for survival. It is found in meat, egg, and legume products. Oysters are particularly good sources of zinc. Zinc is an aphrodisiac and Testosterone Boosterbut it will only raise testosterone levels if the user is deficient in zinc.
Zinc is also very important for the functioning of the enzyme, hormone, and immune systems. In very high doses, zinc can act as an aromatase inhibitor and reduce estrogen levels. It How much zinc to take also a potent antioxidant and can provide benefits for prostate issues. Zinc also plays a role in the repair of intestinal mucosa, when supplemented in high doses.
Green Tea increased absorption. Iron impaired absorption of iron when both supplements exceed 10mg How much zinc to take it is taken on an empty stomach; no relevant inhibition otherwise. Chlorogenic Acid Decreased absorption of Zinc.
Caution should be taken when using zinc supplementation surpassing the Tolerable Upper Limit of Intake TUL of 40mg, and if possible alternate supplements with better toxicology profiles should be used for those purposes desired. Zinc has two standard dosages. The low dosage is mg, while the high dosage is mg. The low dose works well as a daily preventative, while the high dosage should be taken by anyone at risk for a zinc deficiency.
Different forms of zinc contain different amounts of elemental zinc, which refers to the weight of the zinc molecule by itself Note: Product labels tend to mark the How much zinc to take weight. For a dose of 50mg elemental zinc, take mg zinc citrate. For a dose of 50mg elemental zinc, take mg zinc sulfate. For a dose of 50mg elemental zinc, take mg zinc gluconate.
For a dose of 50mg elemental zinc, take mg zinc monomethionine. Superloading zinc by taking up to mg zinc a day is confirmed to be safe in the short term monthsbut because this dose is higher than the 40mg Tolerable Upper Limit TUL of zinc, prolonged superloading is not advised.
Taking less than mg of these four minerals at the same time is fine.
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The Human Effect Matrix looks at human studies it excludes animal and in vitro studies to tell you what effects zinc has on your body, and how strong How much zinc to take effects are. Zinc is an essential mineral found in high levels in animal tissues and eggs, legumes, and fish; it is exceptionally high in shellfish such as oyster   and may also How much zinc to take fortified into cereal grains in developed countries. Zinc is most commonly touted to be important as it is a cofacter in over How much zinc to take involved in gene expression, cell proliferation and signal transduction    and deficiencies of zinc may reduce the activity of these enzymes.
Zinc's main role in the body is as a prosthetic group for several enzymes called metalloproteins, one of which is the Superoxide Dismustase enzyme; an endogenous anti-oxidant involving both zinc and copper.
The Recommended Daily Intake RDI values are 8mg for females, mg for pregnant or lactating females, and mg for males, and the Tolerable Upper intake Limit TUL is in the range of mg for adults of both genders all numbers daily requirements.
A deficiency in zinc is related to delayed growth in youth and hypogonadism in adult males  as well as general mental lethargy and skin abnormalities. Zinc is lost during sweat and exercise   and may be a contributing factor to why testosterone levels seem to be depressed after exhaustive exercise.
In diabetic individuals following information seems to apply equally to type I and type II diabeticsurinary zinc excretion rates are increased    and although serum zinc concentrations are unreliably influenced increased,   decreased,    or not different from non-diabetic controls  cellular concentrations of zinc as measured in immune cells mononuclear cells, granulocytes, lymphocytes and leucocytes tend to be reduced relative to nondiabetic controls.
Zinc Citrate, at 50mg elemental Zinc mg daily for 4 weeks is associated with a maintenance of Zinc status while placebo declines over time told to maintain a low Zinc diet, estimated between mg.
Zinc Gluconate, at 50mg elemental Zinc mgappears to be slightly more effective than Zinc Citrate nonsignificant and can increase serum and erythrocytic stores of Zinc in apparently healthy persons over a period of 4 weeks. Zinc Picolinate bound to picolinic acid, a metabolite of tryptophanat 50mg elemental Zinc mg in healthy persons appears to increase urinary and serum levels greater than placebo and the other two forms tested Citrate, Gluconate. Zinc carnosine ZnC is a synthetic molecule where zinc and carnosine are linked together in a 1: The compound has been used for some time in Japan as a treatment for gastritis and gastric ulcers, and studies have shown that ZnC is up to 3 times more effective at promoting gastric integrity than either zinc or carnosine alone.
This can cause an immune response, leading to systemic inflammation. How much zinc to take ZnC is known to protect against increases in intestinal permeability, the mechanisms at work are not entirely clear. One study employed several in vitro and in vivo models to examine the mechanisms behind How much zinc to take protection of the GI tract.
To examine the ability of ZnC to promote gastric healing in vivo, researchers also examined the effects of ZnC in a rat model for gastric damage. The ability of ZnC to prevent small intestinal damage by indomethacin was also evaluated in mice.
In control mice that received indomethacin alone, substantial shortening of intestinal villi were noted, along with decreased intestinal weight, both indicators of damage.
In contrast, ZnC treatment reduced indomethacin-induced villus-shortening and increased intestinal weight, indicating a protective effect.
To validate the results obtained with in vitro cell culture studies and animal models, 10 healthy human volunteers were recruited in a double-blind, randomized and placebo controlled study. To assess the effects of ZnC on indomethacin-induced increases in intestinal permeability, participants drank a sugar solution containing a mixture of mono-and disaccharides. Since disaccharides are larger and are not easily absorbed in the GI tract by passive diffusion, an increase in urine disaccharide to monosaccharide ratio indicates increased intestinal permeability due to How much zinc to take.
Subjects took either ZnC When taking a placebo, subjects showed a 3x increase in disaccharide ratio, indicating a substantial increase in intestinal permeability from the indomethacin-induced injury. In contrast, subjects taking ZnC showed no significant increase in disaccharide ratio, indicating a strong protective effect on the gut mucosa.
At least one animal study has suggested that dysregulation occurs with intestinal zinc absorption during aging, How much zinc to take adequate dietary intake may in turn be metabolically insufficient due to poorer absorption. Absorption of zinc tends to be regulated, with higher oral intakes being associated with lower bioavailability and approximately 5mg absorbed in postmenopausal women regardless of dietary or supplemental intake.
In otherwise healthy men supplemented with zinc, fasting plasma concentrations can increase within five days of supplementation regardless of baseline zinc status. Zinc, as a trace mineral, is present in the cerebral cortex, pineal gland, and How much zinc to take where it acts as an atypical neuromodulator. Similar to most neuromodulators, zinc is released from the synapse upon action potentials.
Zinc may also activate neuronal potassium channels and reduce glutamate release into the synapse.
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Brain-derived neurotrophic factor BDNF is a protein found in both serum and brain serum concentrations thought to be reflective of brain concentrations  which is involved in regulating neuronal growth and plasticity;  BDNF signalling is implicated in both depression and memory How much zinc to take. High levels of dietary zinc in mice 30ppm via diet with 60ppm via supplemented drinking water has been noted to reduce the actions of BDNF in the brain and impair memory, which was noted to be associated with a zinc deficiency in the hippocampus.
The antidepressive effects of zinc are thought to be mediated by an increase in BDNF, which has been noted in the serum of depressed humans given 30mg elemental zinc over the course of 12 weeks compared to placebo.
Such an increase in BDNF has failed to occur elsewhere when 25mg was given as adjuvant over the same time length to depressed persons already on SSRI therapy despite zinc bettering symptoms of depression. Despite its importance in the brain, high concentrations of zinc can How much zinc to take excitotoxic  and this is sometimes seen in ischemic injury where an excess amount of zinc is released from the synapse and mediates cell death   and infarctions.
Obsessive compulsive disorder is known to at least be associated with glutaminergic abnormalities, particular an excessive level of synaptic glutamate and signalling thereof   which positively correlates with symptom severity.
The addition of zinc mg twice How much zinc to take to fluoxetine therapy 20mg for obsessive compulsive disorder is able to reduce symptoms of OCD as assessed by the Y-BOCS rating scale, although the benefits were present at weeks two and eight but not A deficiency of zinc is known to be a cause of anorexia reduction of appetite, not the same as anorexia nervosaand is usually the first symptom of a zinc deficiency  and is shortly followed by depressive symptoms and anhedonia.
Oral zinc appears to stimulate the vagal nerve effects abolished by vagotomy  which then increase mRNA translation of the two appetite stimulating neural factors orexin and neuropeptide Y also abolished by antagonists of these receptors .
Zinc is known to activate the GPR39 receptor a Ghrelin receptor  and since ghrelin is known to stimulate these two neural fators via the vagus nerve   it is thought that this receptor is the molecular target of zinc.
Depressed patients appear to have reduced circulating zinc concentrations in serum  which is further reduced in treatment resistant persons relative to treatment non-resistant treatment being imipramine  and the magnitude of zinc deficiency correlating with severity of depression. At least in rats, the depressive  and behavioural symptoms increased susceptability to stress  that are seen with two weeks of zinc deprivation are normalized upon supplemetnation of zinc.
Interestingly, deprivation of zinc causes rats to be resistant to fluoxetine SSRI therapy. In otherwise healthy young women given 7mg of elemental zinc in a multivitamin format placebo given the same multivitamindepressive and aggressive symptoms were modestly but significantly reduced relative to placebo. In persons given imipramine but were resistant to treatment, supplementation of 25mg elemental zinc for twelve weeks is able to How much zinc to take depressive symptoms relative to placebo to the levels seen with non-resistant persons as assessed by BDI, HAMD, and CGI.
Zinc is known to be highly concentrated in the hippocampus   and a deficiency of zinc is associated with both mood disorders as well as impaired memory formation. The negative effects of low zinc concentrations in the hippocampus seem to be related to spatial memory,  How much zinc to take spatial memory is known to be associated with brain-derived neurotrophic factor BDNF signalling;  accordingly, injections of zinc into the rat brain cause dose-dependent increases in BDNF signalling and protein content  and a deficiency results in decreased BDNF signalling although the elevated protein content suggests insensitivity of the TrkB receptor.
In general and in studies on how zinc influences spatial memory formation, How much zinc to take dose zinc in drinking water 10ppm has been associated with beneficial,   adverse,  and no significant alterations.
In persons who experienced subacute stroke and had suboptimal dietary intake of zinc 6. Zinc is thought to be an anti-artherogenic agent  and in particular a zinc deficiency is thought to be a risk factor for artherogenesis with supplementation alleviating this risk. In otherwise healthy elderly persons higher risk of zinc deficiencysupplementation of 45mg elemental zinc daily as gluconate daily for six months is associated with reductions in cell adhesion factors ICAM-1 and vCAM-1 and inflammatory cytokines including C-reactive protein, IL-6, and MCP Supplementation of 20mg elemental zinc in obese insulin resistant children over eight weeks is associated with a reduction in total cholesterol and LDL-C.
Oxidized LDL-C appears to be reduced when insulin resistant children are given 20mg elemental zinc for eight weeks, possibly secondary to reducing the state of insulin resistance.
Zinc has been reported to act via the insulin receptor  and phosphorylate Akt in vitrowhich is downstream of the insulin receptor. Beyond measuring zinc concentrations themselves as serum markers are not thought to be overly reliable for subclinical deficiencies a sensitive biomarker for zinc deficiency Ecto 5' nucleotidase  is also known to be reduced in diabetic persons relative to control.
Three weeks of supplementation with 30mg elemental zinc glycine chelation appears to be sufficient to at least partially restore a zinc deficiency in diabetics. In diabetics who have been confirmed to have adequate stores of zinc, further supplementation of high dose zinc mg How much zinc to take zinc as gluconate for three months has failed to have any appreciable benefit. Ex vivo production of TNF from macrophages in elderly persons who supplemented 45mg elemental zinc for a year appears to be reduced.
Zinc supplements can help, but it's also possible to take too much zinc, which could be harmful.
Toxicity can occur in adult men who take more. Older infants who do not take formula should be given foods that have When people take too much zinc for a long time, they sometimes have.
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Although many zinc supplements contain doses of 50 mg or higher, I took a product that contains 4 mg of zinc (2 mg if you take one pill).
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